skip all navigation
skip banner links
skip primary navigation

Dr. John Rakovan

Dr. John Rakovan
Mineralogist / Senior Mineral Museum Curator
New Mexico Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources
New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology
801 Leroy Place
Socorro NM 87801-4796
(575) 835-6333 fax

My research focuses on fundamental aspects of mineralogy including as crystallography, crystal chemistry, and crystal growth, with an emphasis on their connection to environmental and technological uses of minerals, and mineral deposit formation. Much of this work deals with apatite supergroup minerals, native metals and clay minerals.

(See Rakovan Vita)


• Ph.D. in geochemistry/mineralogy, State University of New York at Stony Brook (1/5/91-3/15/96)
• M.S. in clay mineralogy/crystallography, University of Illinois at Chicago (5/1/88-12/15/90)
• B.S. in geology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (9/1/86-5/12/88)
• Boston University (9/83-5/86)


(See Rakovan Vita for more details)

Find publications at:

(graduate student authors indicated by * undergraduate student authors indicated by **)

128) Rakovan, J. 2024. Signature Specimen - The C.T Brown Smithsonite, New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources Mineral Museum. Rocks & Minerals, 99 (in press).

127) Francis, C.A., R. Alanso-Perez, J. Rakovan (2024) Signature Specimen – The Gold Horn At the Mineralogical & Geological Museum Harvard University. Rocks & Minerals, 99:176-180.

126) Sordyl, J., Rakovan, J., Burns, P.C., Topolska, J., Wlodek, A., Szymanowski, J.E.S., Sigmon, J.E., Majka, J. and Maneck, M. (2023) Single crystal analysis of La-doped pyromorphite (Pb5(PO4)3Cl). American Mineralogist, 108:2323–2330.

125) Betkowski*, W., Rakovan, J., Harlov, D. (2023) Petrography, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry of the Llallagua Ore Body. Data In Brief. In press.

124) Rakovan, J. (2022) Who’s Who in Mineral Names: John M. Hughes. Rocks & Minerals. V. 97, p. 92-93.

123) Rakovan, J. (2022) Fluorescence Zoning: Examples in Apatite. Rocks & Minerals, 97:36-46.

122) Betkowski*, W., Rakovan, J., Harlov, D. (2022) Geochronological characterization of Llallagua altered porphyry and hydrothermal assemblages from selected phosphate minerals and zircon. Lithos.

121) Farfan, G.A., Rakovan, J., Ackerson, M., Andrews, B.J., and Post, J.E. (2021) The origin of trapiche-like inclusion patterns in quartz from Inner Mongolia, China. American Mineralogist, 106: 1797–1808.

120) Olds, T.A., Kampf, A.R., Rakovan, J., Burns, P.C., Mills, O.P., and Laughlin-Yurs, C. (2021)

Hydroxylpyromorphite, modern description and characterization of a mineral important to lead-remediation. American Mineralogist, 106: 922–929.

119) Rakovan, J. (2021) Large Faceted Synthetic Forsterite and Synthetic Tephroite. Gem-A, 73: 469-470.

118) Rakovan, J. and Scovil, J. (2021) Apatite and the Apatite Supergroup. Rocks & Minerals, 96:13-19.

117) Rakovan, J. (2021) Coming to Terms with Fluorescence: A Short Glossary of Common Terms in the Context of Mineral Fluorescence. Rocks & Minerals, 96:20-23.

116) Manecki, M., Kwa?niak-Kominek*, M., Majka, J.M., Rakovan, J. (2020) Model of interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation mechanism of pseudomorphic replacement reaction in aqueous solutions based on the system of cerussite PbCO3 - pyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3Cl. Geochemica et Cosmochimica Acta. 289:1-13.

115) Emproto*, C., Alvarez**, A., Anderkin*, C., Rakovan, J. (2020) The Crystallinity of Apatite in Contact with Metamict Pyrochlore from the Silver Crater Mine, ON, Canada. Minerals, 10, 244.

114) Anderson*, C.A., Mathur, R., Rakovan, J., Tremsin, A.S. (2019) A New Metal Isotope Fractionation Effect by Solid-State Ion Conduction. Geology, 47:617-620. Article chosen for cover image of Journal.

113) Ertl, A., Rakovan, J., Hughes, J. M., Bernhardt, H. J., and Rossman, G. R. (2019) Vanadium-rich muscovite from Austria: Crystal structure, chemical analysis, and spectroscopic investigations. Canadian Mineralogist, 57: 383-389.

112) Rakovan, J. and Speer, J.A. (2019) Chips from the Quarry: MSA Centennial Celebration. Rocks & Minerals, 94:493-495.

111) Rakovan, J. and Gunter, M. (2019) A Year of Anniversaries for Alex Speer and the Mineralogical Society of America. Rocks & Minerals, 94: 404-406.

110) Ziga, D., Rakovan, J., and Emproto, C. (2019) Re-emerging Treasures: Yellow Quartz from Cabiche Municipal de Quípama, Boyacá Department, Colombia. Rocks & Minerals, 94:240-247.

109) Hughes, J.M., Harlov, D., and Rakovan, J. (2018) Structural variations along the apatite F-OH join. American Mineralogist, 103:1981-1987.

108) Rakovan, J. (2018) Flattened Crystals. In Letters. Rocks & Minerals, 93:495-496.

107) Rakovan, J. (2018) Computer Programs for Drawing Crystal Shapes and Atomic Structures. Rocks & Minerals, 93:60-63.

106-2) Rakovan, J. (2017) Dravite and Merelaniite – Letter to the Editor. Rocks & Minerals, 92:505.

106) Burke*, M. Rakovan, J., and Krekeler, M. (2017) A Study by Electron Microscopy of Gold and Associated Minerals from Round Mountain, Nevada. Ore Geology Reviews, 91: 708-717.

105) Rakovan, J., Lüders, V., Massanek, A. and Nolze, G. (2017) Gold Crystals from the Lena Goldfields, Bodaibo Area, Eastern Siberia, Russia: Exceptional Hoppered Octahedra and Pseudomorphs after Pyrite. Rocks & Minerals, 92: 410-425.

104) Betkowski*, V., Rakovan, J. and Harlov, D. (2017) Geochemical and textural characterization of phosphate accessory phases in the vein assemblage and metasomatically altered Llallagua tin porphyry, Mineralogy and Petrology, 111: 547–568.

103) Kelly*, S., Rakovan, J. and Hughes, J. M. (2017) Column Anion Arrangements in Chemically Zoned Chlorapatite and Fluorapatite from Kurokura, Japan. American Mineralogist, 102: 720–727.

102) Tremsin, A. S., Rakovan, J., Shinohara, T., Kockelmann, W. Losko, A. S. and Vogel, S. C. (2017) Non-destructive analyses of bulk crystallinity and elemental composition by energy resolved neutron imaging: application to natural gold samples. Nature-Science Reports, 7:40759, 1-9.

101) Olds, T.A., Carlson, S.M., Kampf, A.R., Rakovan, J., Laughlin-Yurs, C., Burns, P.C. and Mills, O.P. (2017) Hydroxylpyromorphite, IMA 2017-075. CNMNC Newsletter No. 40, December 2017, page 1580; Mineralogical Magazine, 81, 1577–1581.

100) Anderson, C.J. and Rakovan, J. (2017) Connoisseur's Choice: Wire Silver & Gold. Rocks & Minerals, 92:345-354.

99) Kleszczewska*, A.; Manecki, M.; Bajda, T.; Mozgawa, W.; Rakovan, J.; Borkiewicz*, O. (2016) Mimetite formation from goethite adsorbed ions. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 22:698-705.

98) Betkowski*, V., Harlov, D. and Rakovan, J. (2016) Hydrothermal mineral replacement reactions for an apatite-monazite assemblage in alkali-rich fluids at 300-600 OC and 100 MPa. American Mineralogist, 101: 2620–2637.

97) Hughes, J. M., Harlov, D., Kelly*, S., Rakovan J., and Wilke, M. (2016) Solid solution in the apatite OH-Cl binary system: compositional dependence of solid solution mechanisms in calcium phosphate apatites along the Cl-OH binary. American Mineralogist, 101:1783–1791.

96) Kampf, A.R., Richards, P.R., Nash, B.P, Murowchick, J.B., and Rakovan, J. (2016) Carlsonite, (NH4)5Fe3+3O(SO4)6·7H2O, and huizingite-(Al), (NH4)9Al3(SO4)8(OH)2·4H2O, two new minerals from a natural fire in an oil-bearing shale near Milan, Ohio. American Mineralogist, 101:2095–2107.

95) Giera*, A., Manecki, M., Bajda, T., Rakovan, J., Kwasniak-Kominek*, M., and Marchlewski*, T. (2016) Arsenate substitution in lead hydroxyl apatites: A Raman spectroscopic study. Spectrochimica Acta Part A, 152:370-377.

94) Rakovan, J., Barnett, B. and White, J. (2016) Fluorapatite from the Foote Mine Kings Mountain North Carolina. Rocks & Minerals, 91:251-256.

93) Rakovan, J. and Laures, B.M. (2016) Large Cat’s-eye Apatite from Madagascar. The Journal of Gemology, 35:186-188.

92-2) Harlov, D. and Rakovan, J. (2015) Apatite - A mineral for all seasons. Elements 11(#3).

92) Kwa?niak-Kominek*, M., Matusik, J., Bajda, T., Manecki, M., Rakovan, J., Marchlewski*, T. and Szala, B. (2015) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of hydroxylpyromorphite

Pb10(PO4)6OH2 – hydroxylmimetite Pb10(AsO4)6(OH)2 solid solution series. Polyhedron, 99:103-111.

91) Rakovan J. and Pasteris, J.D. (2015) A Technological Gem: Materials, Medical, and Environmental Mineralogy of Apatite. In Harlov, D. and J. Rakovan (Guest Editors) Apatite - A mineral for all seasons. Elements 11:195-200.

90) Hughes, J. M. and Rakovan J. (2015) Structure and Chemistry of Apatite and Apatite Supergroup Minerals. In Harlov, D. and J. Rakovan (Guest Editors) Apatite - A mineral for all seasons. Elements 11:165-170.

89) Rakovan, J. (2015) Connoisseur’s Choice: Fluorapatite. Rocks & Minerals, 90:244-256

88) Topolska, J., Latowski, D., Kaschabek, S., Manecki, M., Merkel, B.J., and Rakovan, J. (2014) Pb remobilization by bacterially mediated dissolution of pyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3Cl in presence of phosphate-solubilizing Pseudomonas putida. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21(2):1079-1089.

87) Rakovan, J., Gaillou, E., Post, J.E., Jaszczak, J.A. and Betts, J.H. (2014) Optically sector zoned (star) diamonds from Zimbabwe. Rocks & Minerals. 89:173-178.

86) Rakovan, J. (2014) In Memoriam: Sal Avella. Rocks & Minerals, 89:286-287.

85) Rakovan, J. (2014) Daylight Florescent Hyalite Opal from Mexico. Mineralogical Almanac, 19(3): 62.

84) Rakovan, J. (2014) Neutron Diffraction Analysis Verifies Existence of Some of the World's Largest Gold Crystals. Rocks & Minerals, 89:404-406.

83-2) Rakovan, J. (2013) Stephen Guggenheim 2013 Recipient of the Marilyn and Sturges Bailey Distinguished Member [Clay Mineral Society] Award. Clays and Clay Minerals, 61:473-474.

83) Long**, J. M., Rakovan, J., Jaszczak, J. Sommer, A. J. and Anczkiewicz, R. (2013) Fluorapatite from this remarkable occurrence of graphite and associated minerals, Karo Pit, Block D, Merelani Hills, Arusha Region, Tanzania. Rocks & Minerals. 88: 179-183.

82) Fisher, J. Lillie, R. and Rakovan, J. (2013) Fluorite in Mississippi Valley-Type Deposits. Rocks & Minerals. 88:20-47.

81) Swarnakar*, P., Kanel, S. R., Nepal, D., Jiang, Y., Jia, H., Kerr, L., Goltz, M. N., Levy, J., Rakovan, J. (2013) Silver deposited titanium dioxide thin film for photocatalysis of organic compounds using natural light. Solar Energy. 88:242-249.

80) Rakovan, J., Spann, J.W. and Fast, J. (2013) Collector's Note: Unusual Fluorites from Inner Mongolia. Rocks & Minerals, 88:276-277.

79) Houran, J. and Rakovan, J. (2013) Collector's Note: Unusual Morganites from Corrego do Urucum, Galiléia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Rocks & Minerals, 88:378-379.

78) Rakovan, J. (2013) PEG 2013: The 6th International Symposium on Granitic Pegmatites. Rocks & Minerals, 88:539-543.

77) Rakovan, J. (2013) Apatite from China and Japan. In Apatite, Rakovan and Staebler Editors. Mineral Monographs #17. Lithographie, LLC. p. 98-102.

76) Rakovan, J. (2013) Apatite from Nuristan, Afghanistan. In Apatite, Rakovan and Staebler Editors. Mineral Monographs #17. Lithographie, LLC. p. 96-97.

75) Martin, R. and Rakovan, J. (2013) The Geology of Apatite Occurrences. In Apatite, Rakovan, Staebler and Dallaire Editors. Mineral Monographs #17. Lithographie, LLC. p. 21-27.

74) Rakovan, J. and Waychunas, G. (2013) Color and Fluorescence. In Apatite, Rakovan and Staebler Editors. Mineral Monographs #17. Lithographie, LLC. p. 10-17.

73) Rakovan, J. and Hughes, J.M. (2013) Apatite—A Large and Illustrious Family. In Apatite, Rakovan and Staebler Editors. Mineral Monographs #17. Lithographie, LLC. p. 4-9.

72) Praszkier, T. and Rakovan, J. (2012) Hourglass Figures - Bou Oudi Amethyst. In Amethyst Uncommon Vintage. Lithographie. P.102-105.

71) Eveleth, R.W. and Rakovan, J. (2012) Who’s Who in Mineral Names: Nathaniel Kellogg Fairbank. Rocks & Minerals. V. 87, p. 71-73.

70) Freiburg, J. T. and Rakovan, J. (2012) The Conco Mine, North Aurora, Kane County, Illinois. Rocks & Minerals. 87:116-125.

69-3) Rakovan, J. (2011) The New Crystal Hunters Project and Episode One: Pala. Rocks & Minerals. 86:261-263.

69-2) Petrov, A. and Rakovan, J. (2011) Japanese Topaz. In Topaz, Clifford, et al. Editors. Mineral Monographs #14. Lithographie, LLC. p. 30-33.

69) Rakovan, J., Schmidt*, Gunter, M., Nash, B., Marty, J, Kampf, A.R., and Wise, W.S. (2011) Hughesite Na3AlV10O28 22H2O, a new member of the pascoite family of minerals from the Sunday Mine, San Miguel County, Colorado. Canadian Mineralogist, 49:1253-1265.

68) Luo*, Y., Rakovan, J., Tang, Y., Lupulescu, M.V., Hughes, J, and Pan, Y., (2011). Crystal chemistry of Th in fluorapatite. American Mineralogist. 96:23-33.

67) Hughes, J.M., Rakovan, J., Ertl, A., Rossman, G.R., Baksheev, I., Bernhardt, H.J. (2011) Dissymmetrization in tourmaline: The atomic arrangement of optically sectoral-zoned triclinic Ni-bearing Mg-rich tourmaline. Canadian Mineralogist, 49:29-40.

66) Rakovan, J. (2011) An Evening at the Blanchard. Rocks & Minerals, 86: 232-239.

65-2) Rakovan, J. (2010) An Important Nomenclature Update: A New Apatite Nomenclature. Rocks & Minerals, 85:204-205.

65) Rakovan, J. (2010) Mineral Treasures of the World Exhibition Bejing, China. Rocks & Minerals, 85:434-439.

64) Rakovan, J. (2010) Apatite. McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 10th Edition.

63) Hughes, J.M. and Rakovan, J. (2010) Monazite. McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 10th Edition.

62) Rakovan, J., Nakotte, H., Gasbarro*, N., Kothapalli, K. and Vogel, S. C. (2010) Natural Cold Working and the Crystallinity of Placer Gold. IEEE Gold Rush.

61) Borkiewicz*, O., Rakovan, J., and Cahill, C. (2010) Time resolved in-situ studies of apatite formation pathways in aqueous solutions. American Mineralogist, 95:1224-1236.

60) Pasero, M., Kampf, A. R., Ferraris, C., Pekov, I.V., Rakovan, J., White, T. (2010) Nomenclature of apatite supergroup minerals. European Journal of Mineralogy. European Journal of Mineralogy, 22:163-179.

59)Gung, B.W., Emenike, B. U., Alverez, C. N., Rakovan, J., Kirschbaum, K., and Jain, N. (2010) Relative substituent position on the strength of p-p stacking interactions. Tetrahedron Letters, 51:1648–1650.

58) Rakovan, J., and Partey*, F. (2009) Mineralization of the Hansonburg mining District, Bingham, New Mexico. In: Lueth ed. New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook, 60th field conference, Chupadera Mesa Region. p. 121-131.

57) Rakovan, J., Ono, M. and Francis, C. (2009). Tanakamiyama: A Classic Japanese Pegmatite District. Rocks & Minerals, 84:520-527.

56) Lupulescu, M.V., Rakovan, J., Robinson, and Hughes, J. (2009) Fluoropotassichastingsite from the Greenwood Mine, Orange County, New York: A new end-member calcic amphiboles. Canadian Mineralogist. 47:909-916.

55) Deshpande, R., Jiang, L., Schmidt*, G., Rakovan, J., Wang, X., Wheeler, K. and Wang, H. (2009) A concise approach to the synthesis of opp-Dibenzoporphyrins through the Heck reaction. Organic Letters, 11:4251–4253.

54) Partey*, F., Lev, S., Casey, E., Widom, E., Lueth, V. and Rakovan, J. (2009) Source of fluorine and petrogenesis of the Rio Grande Rift type barite-fluorite-galena deposits. Economic Geology. 104: 505-520

53) Luo*, Y., Rakovan, J., Hughes, J. Pan, Y., (2009). Site preference of U and Th in Cl, F, Sr apatites. American Mineralogist, 94: 345–351.

52) Rakovan, J., Gasbarro**, N., Nakotte, H., Kothapalli, K. and Vogel, S. C. (2009) Characterization of Gold Crystallinity by Diffraction Methods. Rocks & Minerals, 84:54-61.

51) Hughes, J.M., Wise, W.S., Gunter, M.E., Morton, J.P. and Rakovan, J. (2008) Lasalite, Na2Mg2(V10O28) . 20H2O, a new decavanadate mineral from the Vanadium Queen Mine, la sal District, Utah: mineral description, atomic arrangement, and relationship to the pascoite group of minerals. Canadian Mineralogist. 46:1365-1372.

50) Rakovan, J. Luo*, Y and Borkiewicz*, O. (2008) Synchrotron Microanalytical Methods in the Study of Trace and Minor Elements in Apatite. Mineralogia, 39:31-40.

49) Dark, J.P*, Currie, B.S., McPherson, M.L., Rakovan, J., and Marchlewski, T.A*. (2008) Structural, lithological and diagenetic controls on Dakota Formation economic gas production within the greater San Arroyo gas field, Utah. In: Longman, M.A., and Morgan, C.D. eds., Hydrocarbon systems and production in the Uinta Basin, Utah, Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists and Utah Geologic Association Publication 37, p. 179-208.

48) Hughes, J.M., Jolliff, B. L., and Rakovan, J. (2008) The crystal chemistry of whitlockite and merrillite and the dehydrogenation of whitlockite to merrillite. American Mineralogist, 93:1300-1305.

47) Rakovan, J. (2008) Parting Shots – Unusual apatite composites from the Sapo Pegmatite, Minas Gerais Brazil. ELEMENTS. V.4#2 p. 1445.

46-2) Rakovan, J. (2007) Presentation of the Mineralogical Society of America 2007 Distinguished Public Service Medal to Marie Huizing. American Mineralogist, 92:983.

46) Wajima*, T., Haga, M., Kuzawa*, K., Ishimoto, H., Tamada, O., Ito, K., Nishiyama, T., and Rakovan, J. (2007) Material conversion from paper sludge ash in NaOH, KOH, and LiOH solutions. American Mineralogist, 92, 1105-1111.

45) Ikuta*, D., Kawame*, N., Banno, S., Hirajima, T., Ito, K., Rakovan, J., Downs, R. T. and Tamada, O. (2007) First in situ X-ray identification of coesite and retrogressed quartz on a glass thin section of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rock and their crystal structure details. American Mineralogist. 92, 57-63.

44) Dong, H., Heaney, P., and Rakovan, J. (2007) Who’s Who in Mineral Names: Donald R. Peacor. Rocks & Minerals. V. 82, p. 516-518.

43) Wajima*, T., Haga, M., Kuzawa*, K., Ishimoto, H., Tamada, O., Ito, K., Nishiyama, T., Downs, R., and Rakovan, J. (2006) Zeolite synthesis from paper sludge ash at low temperature (90OC): Addition of diatomite for SiO2. Journal of Hazardous Materials, B132, 244–252.

42) Rakovan, J., M. Kitamura, and O, Tamada (2006) Sakura Ishi: Mica pseudomorphs of complex cordierite-indialite intergrowths from Kameoka, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Rocks & Minerals, 81, 284-292.

41) Rakovan, J. (2006) Parting Shots – The Tucson Show. ELEMENTS. V.2 #4p. 255.

40) McDonald, J.* (2006) Iridescent Fluorites from Ohio’s Findlay Arch District. FLUORITE The Collectors Choise, p66-68. (Invited paper for undergraduate student advisee. Only student name allowed as author but research and paper were collaborative efforts).

39) Rakovan, J. (2006) News from Japan Part 4. Rocks & Minerals. V.81, p. 188-198.

38) Lupulescu, M.V., Rakovan, J., Robinson, and Hughes, J. (2005) Fluoropargasite, a new member of the calcic amphiboles, from Edenville, Orange County, New York. Canadian Mineralogist. 43, 1439-1444.

37) Chakhmouradian, A.R. Hughes, J.M. and Rakovan, J. (2005) Fluorcaphite, A second occurrence and detailed structural analysis: simultaneous accommodation of Ca, Sr, Na, and LREE in the apatite atomic arrangement. Canadian Mineralogist, 43, 735-746.

36) Krekeler*, K., Hammerly*, E., Rakovan, J. and Guggenheim, S. (2005) Microscopy Studies of the Palygorskite to Smectite Transformation. Clay and Clay Minerals, 53, 92-99.

35) Rakovan, J. (2005) News from Japan Part 3. Rocks & Minerals. V.80, p. 440-445

34) Rakovan, J. (2005) News from Japan Part 2. Rocks & Minerals. V.80, p. 350-355

33) Rakovan, J. (2005) News from Japan Part 1. Rocks & Minerals. V.80, p. 270-273

32) Rakovan, J. (2005) Li-phosphate minerals and storage batteries. Mineral Maters Column in ELEMENTS. V.1, #2. p. 125.

31) Cherniak, D., Pyle, J., and Rakovan, J. (2004) Synthesis of REE and Y phosphates by Pb-free flux methods for electron microprobe analysis standards and aids in designing monazite chemical U-Th-Pb dating protocols. American Mineralogist, 89, 1533-1539.

30) Losey*, A., Rakovan, J., Hughes, J.M., Francis, C.A. and Dyar, M.D. (2004) Structural Variation in the lithiophilite-triphylite series and other olivine-group structures. Canadian Mineralogist, 42, 1105-1115.

29) Krekeler*, M., Guggenheim, S., and Rakovan, J. (2004) A microtexture study of palygorskite-rich sediments from the Hawthorne Formation, southern Georgia, by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Clays and Clay Minerals, 52, 263-274.

28) Hughes, J.M., Ertl, A., Bernhardt H.J., Rossman, G.R. and Rakovan J. (2004) Mn-rich fluorapatite from Austria: Crystal structure, chemical analysis, and spectroscopic investigations. American Mineralogist. 89. 629-632

27) Meng, Y., Newville, M., Sutton, S., Rakovan, J., and Mao, H.K. (2003) Fe and Ni impurities in synthetic diamond. American Mineralogist. 88, 1555-1559.

26) Hughes, J.M, Rakovan, J. and Bracco, R., Gunter, M. (2003) The atomic arrangement of the ganophyllite-group modulated layer silicates as determined from the orthorhombic dimorph of tamaite, with the elusive 16.8 Å ganophyllite-group superstructure revealed. American Mineralogist. 88, 1324-1330.

25) Wolf*, A., Rakovan, J. and Cahill, C. (2003) Ferroaxinite From Lime Crest Quarry, Sparta, New Jersey. Rocks and Minerals. 78, 252-256.

24) Hughes, J.M. and Rakovan, J. (2001) Monazite. McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 9th Edition.

23) Jaszczak, J.A., and Rakovan, J. (2002) Growth Spirals on Graphite Crystals from the Trotter Mine Dump, Franklin, New Jersey. The Picking Table, 43, 11-13.

22) Rakovan, J. (2002) Growth and Surface Structure of Apatite. In: Phosphates: Geochemical, Geobiological and Materials Importance, Kohn, M., Rakovan, J., Hughes, J.M. (eds). Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. Mineralogical Society of America. Washington, DC. p. 51-86.

21) Hughes, J.M. and Rakovan, J. (2002) The Crystal Structure of Apatite: Ca5(PO4)3(F,OH,Cl). In: Phosphates: Geochemical, Geobiological and Materials Importance, Kohn, M., Rakovan, J., Hughes, J.M. (eds). Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. Mineralogical Society of America. Washington, DC. p. 1-12.

20) Hughes, J.M., Schindler, M., Rakovan, J., and Cureton, F. (2002) The crystal structure of Hummerite, KMg(V5O14).8H2O: Bonding between the [V10O28]6- structural unit and the {K2Mg2(H2O)16}6+ interstitial complex. Canadian Mineralogist. 40, 1429-1435.

19) Rakovan, J., Reeder, R.J., Elzinga, E.J., Cherniak, D. Tait, C.D. and Morris, D.E. (2002) Structural Characterization of U(VI) in the apatite structure by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Environmental Science and Technology. 36, 3114-3117.

18) Bosze*, S. and Rakovan, J. (2002) Surface structure controlled sectoral zoning of the Rare Earth Elements in fluorite from Long Lake, N.Y. and Bingham, N.M. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 66, 997-1009.

17) Rakovan, J., and Jaszczak, J.A. (2002) Multiple length scale growth spirals on metamorphic graphite {001} surfaces studied by atomic force microscopy. American Mineralogist. 87, 17-24.

16) Hughes, J.M., Cureton, F., Marty, J., Gault, R., Gunter, M.E., Campana, C.F., Sommer, A., Rakovan, J. and Brueseke*, M.E. (2001) Dickthomssenite, Mg(V2O6)7H2O, a new mineral from the Firefly-Pigmay Mine, Utah: Descriptive mineralogy and crystal structure. Canadian Mineralogist. 39, 1691-1700.

15) Rakovan, J., M. Newville and S. Sutton (2001) Evidence of heterovalent europium in zoned Llallagua apatite using wavelength dispersive. American Mineralogist, 86, 697-700.

14) Fouke, B.W. and Rakovan, J. (2001) An integrated cathodeluminescence video-capture microsampling system. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 71, 509-513.

13-2) Rakovan, J., Sutton, S., and Newville, M. (2000) Evaluation of Europium Oxidation State and Anomalous Partitioning Behavior in Intrasectorally Zoned Apatite Using Wavelength Dispersive Micro-XANES. The Advanced Photon Source Activity Report 2000.

13) Brown, C.J., Rakovan, J., and Schoonen, M.A.A. (2000) Heavy minerals and sedimentary organic matter in Pleistocene and Cretaceous sediments on Long Island, New York, with emphasis on pyrite and marcasite in the Magothy aquifer: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4216, 22 p.

12) Rakovan, J. and Hughes, J.M. (2000) Strontium in the apatite structure: structure and chemistry of belovite-(Ce) and Sr-rich apatite. Canadian Mineralogist, 38, 839-845.

11) Mayer, L. Rakovan, J. and Rufe, E. (2000) Microtopographic Evolution of Mineral Surfaces as a Tool to Identify and Date Young Fault Scarps in Bedrock. Journal of Geodynamics, 29, 393-406.

10) Reeder, R.J. and Rakovan, J. (1999) Surface structural controls on trace element incorporation during crystal growth. In Growth, Dissolution and Pattern-formation in Geosystems, B. Jamtveit and P. Meakin (eds.) p. 143-162. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

9) Rakovan, J., Becker, U. and Hochella, M.F. Jr., (1999) Aspects of Goethite Surface Microtopography, Structure, Chemistry, and Reactivity. American Mineralogist, 84, 884-894.

8-2) Rakovan, J. and Hochella, M.F. Jr. (1998) Heterogeneous Oxidation and Precipitation of Aqueous Mn(II) at the Goethite Surface: A SPM Study. Microscopy and Microanalysis. 4, supplement 2, 600-601.

8) Hochella, M.F. Jr., Rakovan, J., Rosso, K.M., Bickmore, B.R., and Rufe, E. (1998) New Directions in Mineral Surface Geochemical Research Using Scanning Probe Microscopes. In Mineral-Water Interfacial Reactions, Kinetics and Mechanisms (D. Sparks and T. Grundl Eds.). American Chemical Society Symposium Series 715. p. 37-56.

7) Rakovan, J., McDaniel, D.K., and Reeder R.J. (1997) Use of surface-controlled REE sectoral zoning in apatite from Llallagua, Bolivia, to determine a single-crystal Sm-Nd age. Earth and Planetary Science Letters,146, 329-336.

6) Rakovan, J., and Reeder, R.J. (1996) Intracrystalline Rare Earth Element distributions in apatite: Surface structural influences on zoning during Growth. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 60, 4435-4445.

5) Rakovan, J., and Waychunas, G. (1996) Luminescence in Minerals. Mineralogical Record, 27, 7-19.

4) Rakovan, J., Schoonen, M., Tyrna, P., Nelson, D.O., and Reeder, R.J. (1995) Epitaxial Overgrowths of Marcasite on Pyrite from the Tunnel and Reservoir Project Chicago, Illinois: Implications for Marcasite Growth. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 59, 343-346.

3) Rakovan, J., Mitcheltree, D.B., Benton, L., and Avella, S. (1995) Amethyst on milky quartz from Hopkinton, Rhode Island. Mineralogical Record, 26, 83-89.

2) Rakovan, J., and Reeder, R.J. (1994) Differential incorporation of trace elements and dissymmetrization in apatite: The role of surface structure during growth. American Mineralogist, 79, 892-903.

1) Parise, J.B., Corbin, D.R., Abrams, L., Northrup, P., Rakovan, J., Nenoff, T.M., and Stucky, G.D. (1994) Structural relationships between some BePO-, BeAsO-, and AlSiO-RHO frameworks. Zeolites, 14, 25- 34.

0) Metropolis, W.C., Rakovan, J. and Avella, S. (1986) Amethyst Sceptered Quartz from Ashaway Village Hopkinton Rhode Island. Rocks & Minerals, 61: 247-250.

Educational Column in Rocks and Minerals - Word to the Wise (WTTW)

WTTW 1) Pegmatite (2003) V.78 #3, p. 201

WTTW 2) Skarn (2003) V.78 #4, p. 271

WTTW 3) Manto (2003) V.78 #5, p. 351

WTTW 4) Hypogene and Supergene (2003) V.78 #6, p. 419

WTTW 5) Hydrothermal (2004) V.79 #1, p. 64-65

WTTW 6) Placer (2004) V.79 #2, p. 133-134

WTTW 7) EDS (2004) V.79 #3, p. 194-195

WTTW 8) Zeolite (2004) V.79 #4, p. 171-173

WTTW 9) XRD (2004) V.79 #5, p. 351-353

WTTW 10) Growth Hillock (2004) V.79 #6, 415-417

WTTW 11) Metasomatism (2005) V.80 #1, p. 63-64

WTTW 12) Amygdule (2005) V.80 #3, p. 287

WTTW 13) Pillow Basalt (2005) V.80 #4, p. 202-203

WTTW 14) Gangue (2005) V.80 #5, p. 365-366

WTTW 15) Solid Solution (2005) V.80 #6, p. 449-450

WTTW 16) Mississippi Valley Type Deposit: MVT (2006) V.81 #1, p. 69-71

WTTW 17) Diatreme (2006) V.81 #2, p. 153-154

WTTW 18) A-Mica (2006) V.81 #3, p. 235

WTTW 19) Epitaxy (2006) V.81 #4, p. 317-320

WTTW 20) Desert Varnish (2006) V.81 #5, p. 393-394

WTTW 21) Phase Transition (2006) V.81 #6, p.467-469

WTTW 22) Greisen (2007) V.82 #2, p.157-159.

WTTW 23) Nelsonite and Kiruna-type deposit (2007) V.82 #3, p.249-251

WTTW 24) Hemimorphism (2007) V.82 #4, p.329-333

WTTW 25) 4000+ (Mineral nomenclature) (2007) V.82 #5, p.423-424

WTTW 26) Environmental Mineralogy (2008) V.83 #2, p.172-175

WTTW 27) Kimberlite (2008) V.83 #3, p267-268.

WTTW 28) NYF pegmatite (2008) V.83 #4, p.351-353

WTTW 29) Greenstone (2008) V.83 #6, p.553-554

WTTW 30) Sectoral Zoning (2009) V.84 #2 p. 171-176.

WTTW 31) Felsic/Mafic (2009) V.84 #6 p. 559-560

WTTW 32) Materials Mineralogy (2010) V.85 #4 p.352-357

WTTW 33) Serpentine (2011) V. 86 #1 p.63 – 67.

WTTW 34) Opaques (2014) V. 89 #3 p.269

WTTW 35) Blue Lava (2016) V. 91#1 p.83-84.

WTTW 36) Geode (and friends) (2017) V. 92#1p.85-88.

WTTW 37) Crystal Form (2018) V.93#1 p. 81-86.

WTTW 38) Coordination (2023) V.98#1 p. 99-101.