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Recent & Active Research — Hydrogeology

Adequate water resources are vital to New Mexico. We have worked on hydrogeologic studies throughout the state. These are some of our projects.

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The current and recent research projects shown below are listed in random order.
Mapping suitability for Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) in the Albuquerque Basin
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An aquifer can be considered like a bank account. The deposits or credits typically consist of natural recharge adding water to the aquifer (like precipitation or river water seeping into the ground and reaching the groundwater table). Withdrawals take water out of the aquifer, and can include discharge into rivers or pumping of wells. Most cities are concerned with the withdrawal side of the equation and hope nature takes care of the deposits. But Albuquerque has undertaken the progressive measure of inputting additional recharge (deposits) now so there will be sufficient water for future withdrawals, something called managed aquifer recharge (MAR). To that end, the Albuquerque and Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA) has recently completed a well for deep injection of excess river water into the aquifer, and is currently running surface water down the upper part of Bear Canyon Arroyo for near-surface recharge.

The work is funded by the ABCWUA and conducted by Dan Koning (P.I.), Colin Cikoski, Andy Jochems, and Alex Rinehart (now at NMT EES). The results have been released as Open-file Report 605 and as a summary Fact Sheet.

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Estimating Groundwater Recharge for the Entire State of New Mexico
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Groundwater is replenished by a process called recharge, where snowmelt and rain infiltrates through the soil and slowly moves through the subsurface to eventually reach an aquifer. Because groundwater recharge defines a limit for the availability of groundwater, estimating recharge for the state of New Mexico is necessary for effective water resource management.

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Statewide Water Assessment: Groundwater Levels and Storage Changes
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Changes in water levels can reflect very relevant water issues in the arid southwest, such as depletion of the aquifer, variations in nearby surface water, fluctuations in recharge, and changes in the groundwater storage. For this study, we are compiling water level data, in an effort to begin development of a statewide water level change contour map.

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Hydrogeologic Study of the Plains of San Agustin and the Alamosa Creek Valley
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Since 2007, the sparsely populated San Agustin Plains has been a controversial basin: a company applied for a permit to pump 54,000 acre-feet per year and to pipe that water to a region outside of the Plains. In 2009, the neighboring watershed to the south, Alamosa Creek — the only perennial stream in the region — faced similar pressure with a mining company exploring for beryllium. In response to these pressures and questions about the hydrogeology of this area, the NM Bureau of Geology began an integrated geologic and hydrologic study of the basins in 2009.

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The Collaborative Groundwater Monitoring Network
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The Aquifer Mapping Program at New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources (NMBGMR), with funding from Healy Foundation, is developing a statewide Collaborative Groundwater Monitoring Network for New Mexico. This voluntary Network will gather new and existing data on groundwater levels to help us understand how our state's groundwater resources are changing through time, promote increased awareness of water issues around New Mexico, and provide an important foundation for making informed water-management decisions.

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Long Term Groundwater Monitoring in the Animas Valley
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Our agency has been collaborating with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) on a hydrogeology study along the Animas River in New Mexico in response to the Gold King Mine spill, which occurred in August 2015. The water released from the spill was loaded with dissolved metals and contaminated sediments, which posed a possible risk to groundwater quality in the Animas Valley.

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Development of 3D Aquifer Maps
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It is surprising that New Mexico does not have a detailed map of all of the productive and accessible aquifers across the state. In a state with as little as 0.24% of our land surface covered with water (the least in the country!), having detailed maps of our groundwater resources and aquifers, is essential. Some of our neighboring states, like Texas and Colorado, have these maps already available, and are successfully being used to administer and conserve water. We have started a new multi-year project to develop 3D maps of aquifers.

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Geology of the Engle and Palomas Basins, Sierra County, New Mexico
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Geologists and hydrologists have been interested in basin-fill sediments of the Engle and Palomas Basins in Sierra County since the early 1900s. These Rio Grande rift basins contain packages of sediment shed from the surrounding uplifts over the last ~27,000,000 years. Well logs indicate that these basin-fill deposits, named the Santa Fe Group, are as much as 2 kilometers thick in places.

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Hydrogeology and Water Resource Assessment of the Pueblo of Picuris, Taos County, New Mexico
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From October 2000 through June 2002, the New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources conducted geologic mapping on the Pueblo of Picuris as part of a three phase hydrogeologic project for the Pueblo. This work produced a geologic map of the Picuris reservation, and results were summarized in a Phase 1 Final Technical Report dated June 2002. From June 2003 through December 2004, the Bureau continued work on the hydrologic and water quality aspects of the project, which comprised phases 2 and 3 of the study. These phases of work included a well and spring inventory, water level measurements, assessment of the quality of groundwater and surface water, evaluations of the subsurface hydrogeology of aquifers and the interaction between groundwater, surface water and potential sources of contamination in the vicinity of the confluence of the Rio Pueblo de Picuris, Rio Santa Barbara, Rio Chiquito, and Chamizal Creek. This report summarizes the data collected and findings of these final two phases of the hydrogeologic assessment of groundwater and surface water resources on the Pueblo of Picuris.

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